Friday, September 20

List of Indian intelligence agencies

Intelligence Agencies in India

Directorate of Revenue Intelligence

Functions under the Central Board of Excise and customs(CBEC), in the Ministry of Finance, Department of Revenue. Headed by Director General in New Delhi,it is presently divided into seven zones, each under the charge of an Additional Director General, and further sub-divided into Regional Units, Sub-Regional Units and Intelligence Cells with a complement of Additional Directors, Joint Directors, Deputy Directors, Assistant Directors,Senior Intelligence Officers and Intelligence Officers. Its charter includes the following functions:

  • Collection of intelligence about smuggling of contraband goods, narcotics,under-invoicing etc. through sources of India and abroad, including secret sources.
  • Analysis and dissemination of such intelligence to the field formations for action.
  • Working out of intelligence by the Directorate officers themselves to a successful conclusion, where necessary.
  • Associating or taking over the investigations which warrant specialised handling by the Directorate.
  • Guiding important investigation/prosecution cases.
  • Functioning as the liaison authority for exchange or information among ESCAP countries for combating international smuggling and customs frauds in terms of the recommendation of the ESCAP conference.
  • To keep liaison with Central Bureau of Investigation and through them with the INTERPOL.
  • To co-ordinate, direct and control anti-smuggling operations on the Indo-Nepal border.
  • To refer cases registered under the Customs Act to the Income Tax Department for action under the Income Tax Act.
  • To keep statistics of seizures and prices/rates etc. for watching trends of smuggling and supply required material to the ministry of Finance and other Ministries.
  • To study and suggest remedies for loopholes in law and procedures to combat smuggling.
National Technical Research Organisation(NTRO)

The National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO) is a premier apex scientific agency under the National Security Adviser in the Prime Minister's Office, India. It was set up in 2004. It also includes National Institute of Cryptology Research and Development (NICRD), which is first of its kind in Asia.The National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO), originally known as the National Technical Facilities Organisation (NTFO), is a highly specialised technical intelligence gathering agency. While the agency does not 
affect the working of technical wings of various intelligence agencies,including those of the Indian Armed Forces, it acts as a super-feeder agency for providing technical intelligence to other agencies on internal and external security. The agency is under the control of India's external intelligence agency, Research and Analysis Wing.


The agency develops technology capabilities in aviation and remote sensing, data gathering and processing, cyber security, cryptology systems, strategic hardware and software development and strategic monitoring.

It is believed that it deals with imagery and communications intelligence
using satellites. It is believed that the NTRO, with ISRO, launched the Technology Experiment Satellite.
The Indian Infrastructure Protection Centre, an agency to monitor and assess threats to crucial infrastructure and other vital installations has also been set up under the National Technical Research Organisation. The Technology 
Experiment Satellite (TES) has a pan chromatic camera for remote sensing. The camera is which is capable of producing images of 1 Metre resolution. 1 metre resolution means the camera is able to distinguish between two objects which are separated at least a metre. The launch of TES made India the second country in the world after the USA that commercially offers images with one metre resolution. It is used for remote sensing of civilian areas, mapping industry and geographical information services.

Research and Analysis Wing(R&AW)

Research and Analysis Wing (RAW or R&AW) is the primary external intelligence agency of the Republic of India. It was formed in September 1968 under the helmsman-ship of its first Director, Rameshwar Nath Kao.Its creation was necessitated post the Sino-Indian War 1962 and Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 which posed various gaps in intelligence gathering undertaken by Intelligence Bureau (which then handled both internal and external intelligence). This convinced the Government of India that a specialised, independent agency was required for competent external intelligence gathering.The primary function of R&AW is collection of external intelligence and counter-terrorism. In addition,it is responsible for obtaining and analysing information about foreign governments, corporations and persons to advise Indian policymakers. R&AW is an effective and one of the primary instrument of India's national power.It is also involved in the security of India's nuclear programme.Headquartered in New Delhi, R&AW's current chief is Alok Joshi a 1976-batch IPS officer of Haryana cadre.

Intelligence Bureau(IB)
The Intelligence Bureau (IB) is India's internal intelligence agency and reputedly the world's oldest intelligence agency.It was recast as the Central 
Intelligence Bureau in 1947 under the Ministry of Home Affairs. The reason for the perception may be because, in 1885, Major General Sir Charles MacGregor was appointed Quartermaster General and head of the Intelligence Department for the British Indian Army at Simla.

Defence Intelligence Agency(DIA)

The Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA) is an organisation responsible for providing and coordinating intelligence for the Indian armed forces. It was created in March 2002 and is administered within the Union Ministry ofDefence.


Understanding of the shadowy workings of the IB is largely speculative. Many a times even their own family members are unaware of their whereabouts.One known task of the IB is to clear licences to amateur radio enthusiasts. The IB also passes on intelligence between other Indian intelligence agencies and the police. The Bureau also grants the necessary security clearances to Indian diplomats and judges before they take the oath. On rare occasions, IB officers interact with the media during a crisis situation. The IB is also rumoured to intercept and open around 6,000 letters daily. It also has an email spying system similar to FBI's Carnivore system.The Bureau is also authorised to conduct wiretapping without a warrant.

Joint Cipher Bureau

The Joint Cipher Bureau works closely with the IB and R&AW. It is responsible for cryptanalysis and encryption of sensitive data. The inter-services Joint Cipher Bureau has primary responsibility for cryptology and SIGINT, providing coordination and direction to the other military service organizations with similar mission. Most current equipment providing tactical intelligence is of Russian origin, including specialized direction finding and monitoring equipment.
The Joint Cipher Bureau is also responsible for issues relating to public and private key management.Cryptographic products are export-controlled licensed items, and licenses to India are not generally available for products of key length of more than 56 bits. The domestic Indian computer industry 
primarily produces PCs, and PC-compatible cryptographic products have been developed and are being used Commercially More robust encryption systems are not commercially produced in India, and progress in this field has been slow due to the general unavailability of technology and know-how.Customised cryptographic products have been designed and produced by organizations in the defense sector are engaged in the Implimation of cryptographic techniques, protocols and the products.

All India Radio Monitoring Service

All India Radio Monitoring Service (AIRMS) is the central monitoring service that monitors broadcasts in India as well as from all foreign of Interest to India. AIRMS is located in Simla. It works in liaison with RAW and Military intelligence.

Signals Intelligence Directorate

The Signals Intelligence Directorate is a joint service organisation, manned by personnel from the Army, Navy and Air Force. It has a large number of WEUs (Wireless Experimental Units) that carry out the task of monitoring military links of other countries.
The Central Monitoring Organisation (CMO) is directly under the Ministry of Defence. It has several monitoring companies, located at different locations around the country. Task is to monitor use of radio spectrum by all users,
such as Defence, Police, AIR, Railways, PSUs etc.

Aviation Research Centre

The Aviation Research Centre (ARC) is a part of the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) of the Cabinet Secretariat, India. The first head of the ARC was R. N. Kao, the legendary founding chief of R&AW. Over the years the ARC has grown into a large operation and flies a large and varied fleet that till recently included the high-flying Mach 3 capable MIG-25.

Directorate of Air Intelligence

The Directorate of Air Intelligence is the intelligence arm of the Indian Air Force. Air Force intelligence responsibilities include imagery intelligence collection MiG-25R and Jaguar reconnaissance aircraft. During the 1971 war with Pakistan, Russian satellite imagery provided India with information on Chinese force deployments. And with advances in the Indian space program, 
the Indian Air Force will be acquiring independent space-based imagery intelligence capabilities.

Directorate of Navy Intelligence

The Directorate of Naval Intelligence is the intelligence arm of the Indian Navy.

Directorate of Income Tax (Intelligence and Criminal Investigation)

This is the Income Tax's intelligence arm. It is India's official FATF unit. 
The Directorate of Intelligence is an allied and compact investigative set up. 
The DGIT (Intelligence) reports directly to the Member(Investigation),Central Board of Direct Taxes. The office will be attached to the office of the Board. The Directorate is required to take up intensive investigation of selected cases / class of cases and develop them for further action / specialized operation; 
study and analyze emerging trends in tax evasion, new modus operandi etc.; create an economic offence data base; develop a profiling system etc. both in traditional and non traditional fields. 
The Directorate liaise/interact with other intelligence/investigating agencies 
such as FIU, NCB, ED, DRI, DGCEI, SFO, CEIB etc. The Directorate has access to all the information received by the Department viz. AIR, TDS, BCTT, STT, CIB, AST etc.Departmental national net work, Departmental records etc.

Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation

The Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation is the law enforcement agency under the Ministry of Finance responsible for investigating violations of India's tax laws, including fraud,evasion and money laundering.The controlling authority is the Investigation Division of the Central Board of Direct Taxes

Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC)

The Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) of the government of India analyzes intelligence data from the Intelligence 
Bureau and the RAW, Directorate of Military Intelligence, Directorate of Naval Intelligence, Directorate of Air Intelligence. JIC has its own secretariat that is under the Cabinet Secretariat.

Economic Intelligence Council

In order to facilitate coordination amongst the Enforcement Agencies dealing with economic offences and ensure operational coordination amongst them, a two tier system has been established by the Government of India with an Economic Intelligence Council at the Centre under the Chairmanship of Union Minister Finance,and 18 Regional Economic Intelligence Committees at different places in India.

Central Economic Intelligence Bureau

It is well recognised that the evasion of one tax usually entails evasion of other taxes as well. For the purpose of effective information gathering, 
collation and dissemination, a close co-ordination between the Agencies enforcing different tax laws is essential.
Hence, the Central Economic Intelligence Bureau was set up with the intention of creating a body which would coordinate and strengthen the intelligence gathering activities as well as investigative efforts of all the Agencies which enforce economic laws.

Army Directorate of Military Intelligence

India's military intelligence traces its origins to the appointment in 1885 of Maj. Gen. Sir Charles MacGregor as head of 

the Intelligence Department of the British Indian Army. Headquartered in Simla, the Department was primarily tasked 

collection and analysis of intelligence relating to Russian troop dispositions in Central Asia.The departure of the British in 1947 marked the low point, as the British left behind very little in the way of assets or infractructure for the Intelligence Corps of the newly independent India.

Special Security Bureau

The Special Security Bureau is unique, as it is both an intelligence agency and also a specialized commando 

organization for behind enemy line operations. 
Its strength is currently about two battalions.
source: wikipedia


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